“HANDBOOK ON MARITIME HYBRID THREATS – 10 scenarios and legal scans”


COI Vulnerabilities and Resilience (COI VR) of the The European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats has published a “HANDBOOK ON MARITIME HYBRID THREATS – 10 scenarios and legal scans” on 22 November 2019. > Handbook


Recent developments, such as those in and around the Sea of Azov and in the Strait of Hormuz in the spring and summer of 2019, have clearly demonstrated how security measures at sea and the disturbance of shipping may have immediate and/or long-term effects on the economy. It has become evident that these kinds of methods may be used as a potential instrument in a hybrid conflict.


During the past few years, the world has already witnessed several such activities, highlighting how preparedness at all levels needs to be improved to meet, counter and recover from such situations.


The rapid digitalization process and interconnectivity of the naval world expose new potential vulnerabilities. The opportunities for and likelihood of cyberattacks, for example on ships or in critical ports, have increased drastically. At worst, such attacks could cause economic losses amounting to billions.


The Working Paper argues that when a hybrid conflict emerges at sea, a unified, multinational response and/or presence at an early stage is likely to decrease the risk of facing more serious impacts. In this context, attribution (technical and political) plays a key role in defining countermeasures and as a tool for deterrence.


Authors of the Handbook are:

  • Prof. Terry Gill, University of Amsterdam

  • Mr. Valentin Schatz, University of Hamburg

  • Prof. Lauri Ojala, University of Turku

  • Dr. Tadas Jakstas, NATO ENSEC COE  (NATO Energy Security Centre of Excellence), Lithuania

  • Dr. Pirjo Kleemola-Juntunen, University of Lapland, Finland, and

  • Mr. Jukka Savolainen, Hybrid CoE



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